Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Battle of Marston Moor - English Civil War History

Battle of Marston Moor - Summary: Meeting on Marston Moor during the English Civil War, an allied army of Parliamentarians and Scots Covenanters engaged Royalist troops under Prince Rupert. In the two-hour battle, the Allies initially had the advantage until Royalist troops broke the center of their lines. The situation was rescued by Oliver Cromwells cavalry which traversed the battlefield and finally routed the Royalists. As a result of the battle, King Charles I lost most of northern England to Parliamentary forces. Commanders Armies: Parliamentarian Scots Covenanters Alexander Leslie, Earl of LevenEdward Montagu, Earl of ManchesterLord Fairfax14,000 infantry, 7,500 cavalry, 30-40 guns Royalists Prince Rupert of the RhineWilliam Cavendish, Marquess of Newcastle11,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, 14 guns Battle of Marston Moor - Dates Weather: The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on July 2, 1644, seven miles west of York. Weather during the battle was scattered rain, with a thunderstorm when Cromwell attacked with his cavalry. Battle of Marston Moor - An Alliance Formed: In early 1644, after two years of fighting the Royalists, the Parliamentarians signed the Solemn League and Covenant which formed an alliance with the Scottish Covenanters. As a result, a Covenanter army, commanded by the Earl of Leven, began moving south into England. The Royalist commander in the north, the Marquess of Newcastle, moved to prevent them from crossing the Tyne River. Meanwhile, to the south a Parliamentarian army under the Earl of Manchester began advancing north to threaten the Royalist stronghold of York. Falling back to protect the city, Newcastle entered its fortifications in late April. Battle of Marston Moor - Siege of York Prince Ruperts Advance: Meeting at Wetherby, Leven and Manchester decided to lay siege to York. Surrounding the city, Leven was made commander-in-chief of the allied army. To the south, King Charles I dispatched his ablest general, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, to gather troops to relieve York. Marching north, Rupert captured Bolton and Liverpool, while increasing his force to 14,000. Hearing of Ruperts approach, the Allied leaders abandoned the siege and concentrated their forces on Marston Moor to prevent the prince from reaching the city. Crossing the River Ouse, Rupert moved around the Allies flank and arrived at York on July 1. Battle of Marston Moor - Moving to Battle: On the morning of July 2, the Allied commanders decided to move south to a new position where they could protect their supply line to Hull. As they were moving out, reports were received that Ruperts army was approaching the moor. Leven countermanded his earlier order and worked to reconcentrate his army. Rupert advanced quickly hoping to catch the Allies off guard, however Newcastles troops moved slowly and threatened not to fight if they were not given their back pay. As a result of Ruperts delays, Leven was able to reform his army before the Royalists arrival. Battle of Marston Moor - The Battle Begins: Due to the days maneuvering, it was evening by the time the armies were formed up for battle. This coupled with a series of rain showers convinced Rupert to delay attacking until the following day and he released his troops for their evening meal. Observing this movement and noting the Royalists lack of preparation, Leven ordered his troops to attack at 7:30, just as a thunderstorm began. On the Allied left, the Oliver Cromwells cavalry pounded across the field and smashed Ruperts right wing. In response, Rupert personally led a cavalry regiment to the rescue. This attack was defeated and Rupert was unhorsed. Battle of Marston Moor - Fighting on the Left and Center: With Rupert out of the battle, his commanders carried on against the Allies. Levens infantry advanced against the Royalist center and had some success, capturing three guns. On the right, an attack by Sir Thomas Fairfaxs cavalry was defeated by their Royalist counterparts under Lord George Goring. Counter-charging, Gorings horsemen pushed Fairfax back before wheeling into the flank of the Allied infantry. This flank attack, coupled with a counterattack by the Royalist infantry caused half of the Allied foot to break and retreat. Believing the battle lost, Leven and Lord Fairfax left the field. Battle of Marston Moor - Cromwell to the Rescue: While the Earl of Manchester rallied the remaining infantry to make a stand, Cromwells cavalry returned to the fighting. Despite having been wounded in the neck, Cromwell quickly led his men around the rear of Royalist army. Attacking under a full moon, Cromwell struck Gorings men from behind routing them. This assault, coupled with a push forward by Manchesters infantry succeeded in carrying the day and driving the Royalists from the field. Battle of Marston Moor - Aftermath: The Battle of Marston Moor cost the Allies approximately 300 killed while the Royalists suffered around 4,000 dead and 1,500 captured. As a result of the battle, the Allies returned to their siege at York and captured the city on July 16, effectively ending Royalist power in northern England. On July 4, Rupert, with 5,000 men, began retreating south to rejoin the king. Over the next several months, Parliamentarian and Scots forces eliminated the remaining Royalist garrisons in the region.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Parenting Styles And Family Relationships - 2529 Words

Parenting styles have been researched in many different journals and their role in the promotion of healthy child attachment to family, friends and social settings. In particular this review will focus on parenting styles and their correlation to parent-child attachment. The review will focus on the four main parenting styles authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and neglect and examine the effectiveness of these parenting styles on parent-child attachment. Then the review will further examine these parenting styles on themes that emerged throughout the literature reviewed. The themes are: the child’s perception of parenting styles, family dynamic, psychological effects and children with health issues. After examining the literature the main overarching conclusion is that authoritative parenting is the most satisfactory parenting style in all of the reviewed literature and that authoritarian and permissive parenting reflect negative parenting styles and don’t promote positive parent-child attachment. Family Dynamic Parenting styles and family dynamics have been correlated in a study by Matejevic, Todorovic, Jovanovic (2014) where they examine the correlation between balanced family systems and authoritative parenting and unbalanced family systems and the appearance of authoritarian or permissive parenting styles (Matejevic, Todorovic Jovanovic 2014 p. 433). 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Easter 1916 Essay Example For Students

Easter 1916 Essay Easter 1916The 1916 Easter Rebellion spoke to the heart of Irish nationalism and emerged to dominate nationalist accounts of the origin and evolution of the Irish State. The decision by a hand- full of Irish patriots to strike a blow for Irish independence mesmerized the Irish people in its violent intensity and splendor. According to Richard Kearney, author of Myth and Terror, suddenly everything was dated Before or after Easter Week. The subsequent executions of the sixteen rebel leaders by the British authorities marked an incredible transformation from Irish patriots to their martyrdom, which came to represent the high-water mark of redemptive violence, a glorious beginning and a bloody ending. The initial reaction in Ireland to the Rising was shock and anger. Following the executions, the nationalist community closed ranks against the British government. The most famous reaction to the Rising is the poem Easter 1916 by the Irish poet, William Butler Yeats. In one respect, the poem is a product of its time and reflects the emotional impact of Easter Week. But, the power of Yeatss language and imagery transcends the event, and asks the question of all generations, O when may it suffice? In 1916, the political climate in Ireland was dangerously volatile, but few Irish citizens realized they were at the edge of an abyss. Most nationalists, William Butler Yeats included, were content with a promise by the British government to grant Ireland moderate independence, in the form of Home Rule, at the close of World War I. The Unionist population vowed to resist Home Rule and began organizing a heavily armed private militia. The Irish Diaspora and many Irish nationalists had little faith in the British governments willingness to install Home Rule and stand up to the unionists. Preoccupied by the Great War and desperate for able bodies, the British government made its fatal decision to enforce conscription in Ireland. Outcries by Irish republicans that Britain bore no right to Irish fodder for their war canons, helped pave the way for an uprising. Rebel leaders from the Irish Republican Brotherhood, the Irish Nationalist Volunteer Army, and James Connollys Citizens Army decided the time was ripe for a rebellion and adopted a familiar concept in Irish history, Englands trouble is Irelands opportunity. Like their predecessors in the rebellions of 1848 and 1867, the sixteen rebel leaders in the 1916 Rising emerged from the intellectual and literary community, including promising writers and poets. Men like Pearse and MacDonagh were products of the Irish Literary Revival, spearheaded by Yeats, during the Golden Age in Ireland. They exemplified the Irish mythological tradition to sacrifice in the name of dead generations, and to pick up where the Young Irelande rs left off. Pearse and many of his comrades never entertained any hope of surviving the Rising, or of defeating the British. The 1916 rebel leaders operated on the assumption that sacrifice obeys the laws of myth not politics. An Irish victory could only spring from defeat, and demanded the death of Irish heroes. According to Pearse and his comrades, they would lose the victory in life, but they would win it in death. Kearney points out that in The Coming Revolution Pearse wrote: we may make mistakes in the beginning and shoot the wrong; but bloodshed is a cleansing and a sanctifying thing, and the nation which regards it as the final horror has lost its manhood. According to Kearney, the rebel leaders realized that an eternal victory could be ensured only by a Rising that reached back to the roots of the Gaelic national spirit, and was energized by the memories of 1803, 1848, and 1867. The poem, Easter 1916, expresses Yeatss grief and horror at the events of Easter Week. Yeats began writing the poem within weeks of the executions in May 1916, and completed it two months later. The author initially withheld broad publication, only sharing the poem with a close circle of friends until 1920. At first reading, the poem is bewildering. Readers are not sure if the author is celebrating or condemning the rebel leaders and their insurrection. We know that Yeats is acquainted with the rebel leaders, but only in passing. Yeats reference to motley clothing indicates that some of the leaders were affiliated with the Abbey Theatre, the world of actors and clowns, a group rarely consumed by serious issues in Irish society: Being certain that they and I/But lived where motley is worn:Yeats acknowledges early in the first stanza that despite their hum-drum middle-class identities, (a frequent target for Yeats scorn) the rebels vivid faces betray a vibrant idealism and youthful ent husiasm, their eyes fixed on a changing future. Yeats cannot help but notice how the men stand out starkly against the background of an age gone by, the aristocratic and orderly world of Yeats:I have met them at close of dayComing with vivid facesFrom counter or desk among greyEighteenth-century houses.Kearney asserts that Yeatss use of is rather than was at the end of stanza one, forewarns of the tragic conflict to come. According to Kearney, Yeats emphasizes a central theme to the poem, that beauty is the offspring of terror. Horrific beauty is the offspring of terror, born not once, but something to be perpetually reborn now and in times to come:All changed, changed utterly:A terrible beauty is born. In the second stanza Yeats publicly apologizes and expresses his new-found respect for the middle-class. The author is compelled to revise his earlier ideas expressed in September 1913. Yeats pays humble tribute to the executed leaders as he one by one establishes their place in his tory. Of Pearse, a poet, writer and the head of St. Ednas, and MacDonagh, denied an opportunity to earn his own role as an Irish writer, by his untimely death, Yeats writes:This man had kept a schooland rode our winged horse;This other his helper and friend,Was coming into his force;He might have won fame in the end,So sensitive his nature seemed,So daring and sweet his thought.Although Yeats cannot forget MacBrides shortcomings and brutal treatment of Maude Gonne, he begrudgingly admits that the heroic sacrifice redeems any clown that has resigned his part in the casual comedy of Irish life:This other man I had dreamedA drunken, vainglorious lout. The Sin Of Nadab Abihu EssayThe combined contemporary political forces of 1916 including the conservative nationalism of John Redmond, the Home Rule Party and Yeats himself, failed to stem the tide of the rebellions political and cultural aftermath. The British executions delivered death to the Irish rebels, and simultaneously gave life to a new group of Irish martyrs. Events that spanned just a couple of weeks in 1916, ultimately drove a stake through the heart of constitutionalism nationalism, and Yeatss idea of a romantic, aristocratic Anglo- Irish Ireland. Kearney informs us that shortly after Yeats wrote Easter 1916, posters emerged around Dublin, paying tribute to the fallen martyrs. One poster depicted Patrick Pearse in a pieta position, supported by a tricolour-waving Mother Erin. The posters caption read All Is Changed. The Irish people wasted little time fulfilling Pearses prediction in his surrender statement to the British authorities, that though the Irish lost their victory in life, they would win it in death. Irish history after 1916 confirms Yeats fear of a cultic immortalization of the leaders blood sacrifice. The middle- class rebels whom Yeats held in such contempt, were responsible for all that was utterly changed and the terrible beauty that was born. Twelve months before his death, Pearse spoke at the graveside of ODonovan Rossa. Three-quarters of a century later, his immortalised words represent the heart of Irish republicanism: life springs from death and from the graves of patriot men and women spring living watersThe fools, the fools, the fools, they have left us our Fenian dead and while Ireland holds these graves Ireland unfree shall never be at peace.The executed patriots did indeed leave behind a legacy. The memory of their sacrifice continues to rise from their graves and inspire future generations to the cult of martyrdom. Now and in time to be,Wherever green is worn,Are changed, changed utterly:A terrible beauty is born.Works CitedAllison, Johathan, ed. Yeatss Political Identities: Selected Essays. Ann Arbor: TheUniversity of Michigan Press, 1996. Unterecker, John. A Readers Guide To William Butler Yeats. New York: Farrar, Straus Giroux, 1974.