Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Battle of Marston Moor - Summary: Meeting on Marston Moor during the English Civil War, an allied army of Parliamentarians and Scots Covenanters engaged Royalist troops under Prince Rupert. In the two-hour battle, the Allies initially had the advantage until Royalist troops broke the center of their lines. The situation was rescued by Oliver Cromwells cavalry which traversed the battlefield and finally routed the Royalists. As a result of the battle, King Charles I lost most of northern England to Parliamentary forces. Commanders Armies: Parliamentarian Scots Covenanters Alexander Leslie, Earl of LevenEdward Montagu, Earl of ManchesterLord Fairfax14,000 infantry, 7,500 cavalry, 30-40 guns Royalists Prince Rupert of the RhineWilliam Cavendish, Marquess of Newcastle11,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, 14 guns Battle of Marston Moor - Dates Weather: The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on July 2, 1644, seven miles west of York. Weather during the battle was scattered rain, with a thunderstorm when Cromwell attacked with his cavalry. Battle of Marston Moor - An Alliance Formed: In early 1644, after two years of fighting the Royalists, the Parliamentarians signed the Solemn League and Covenant which formed an alliance with the Scottish Covenanters. As a result, a Covenanter army, commanded by the Earl of Leven, began moving south into England. The Royalist commander in the north, the Marquess of Newcastle, moved to prevent them from crossing the Tyne River. Meanwhile, to the south a Parliamentarian army under the Earl of Manchester began advancing north to threaten the Royalist stronghold of York. Falling back to protect the city, Newcastle entered its fortifications in late April. Battle of Marston Moor - Siege of York Prince Ruperts Advance: Meeting at Wetherby, Leven and Manchester decided to lay siege to York. Surrounding the city, Leven was made commander-in-chief of the allied army. To the south, King Charles I dispatched his ablest general, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, to gather troops to relieve York. Marching north, Rupert captured Bolton and Liverpool, while increasing his force to 14,000. Hearing of Ruperts approach, the Allied leaders abandoned the siege and concentrated their forces on Marston Moor to prevent the prince from reaching the city. Crossing the River Ouse, Rupert moved around the Allies flank and arrived at York on July 1. Battle of Marston Moor - Moving to Battle: On the morning of July 2, the Allied commanders decided to move south to a new position where they could protect their supply line to Hull. As they were moving out, reports were received that Ruperts army was approaching the moor. Leven countermanded his earlier order and worked to reconcentrate his army. Rupert advanced quickly hoping to catch the Allies off guard, however Newcastles troops moved slowly and threatened not to fight if they were not given their back pay. As a result of Ruperts delays, Leven was able to reform his army before the Royalists arrival. Battle of Marston Moor - The Battle Begins: Due to the days maneuvering, it was evening by the time the armies were formed up for battle. This coupled with a series of rain showers convinced Rupert to delay attacking until the following day and he released his troops for their evening meal. Observing this movement and noting the Royalists lack of preparation, Leven ordered his troops to attack at 7:30, just as a thunderstorm began. On the Allied left, the Oliver Cromwells cavalry pounded across the field and smashed Ruperts right wing. In response, Rupert personally led a cavalry regiment to the rescue. This attack was defeated and Rupert was unhorsed. Battle of Marston Moor - Fighting on the Left and Center: With Rupert out of the battle, his commanders carried on against the Allies. Levens infantry advanced against the Royalist center and had some success, capturing three guns. On the right, an attack by Sir Thomas Fairfaxs cavalry was defeated by their Royalist counterparts under Lord George Goring. Counter-charging, Gorings horsemen pushed Fairfax back before wheeling into the flank of the Allied infantry. This flank attack, coupled with a counterattack by the Royalist infantry caused half of the Allied foot to break and retreat. Believing the battle lost, Leven and Lord Fairfax left the field. Battle of Marston Moor - Cromwell to the Rescue: While the Earl of Manchester rallied the remaining infantry to make a stand, Cromwells cavalry returned to the fighting. Despite having been wounded in the neck, Cromwell quickly led his men around the rear of Royalist army. Attacking under a full moon, Cromwell struck Gorings men from behind routing them. This assault, coupled with a push forward by Manchesters infantry succeeded in carrying the day and driving the Royalists from the field. Battle of Marston Moor - Aftermath: The Battle of Marston Moor cost the Allies approximately 300 killed while the Royalists suffered around 4,000 dead and 1,500 captured. As a result of the battle, the Allies returned to their siege at York and captured the city on July 16, effectively ending Royalist power in northern England. On July 4, Rupert, with 5,000 men, began retreating south to rejoin the king. Over the next several months, Parliamentarian and Scots forces eliminated the remaining Royalist garrisons in the region.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Parenting styles have been researched in many different journals and their role in the promotion of healthy child attachment to family, friends and social settings. In particular this review will focus on parenting styles and their correlation to parent-child attachment. The review will focus on the four main parenting styles authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and neglect and examine the effectiveness of these parenting styles on parent-child attachment. Then the review will further examine these parenting styles on themes that emerged throughout the literature reviewed. The themes are: the childÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of parenting styles, family dynamic, psychological effects and children with health issues. After examining the literature the main overarching conclusion is that authoritative parenting is the most satisfactory parenting style in all of the reviewed literature and that authoritarian and permissive parenting reflect negative parenting styles and donÃ¢â¬â¢t promote positive parent-child attachment. Family Dynamic Parenting styles and family dynamics have been correlated in a study by Matejevic, Todorovic, Jovanovic (2014) where they examine the correlation between balanced family systems and authoritative parenting and unbalanced family systems and the appearance of authoritarian or permissive parenting styles (Matejevic, Todorovic Jovanovic 2014 p. 433). The research examines family systems with two variables which focus on the cohesion and flexibility of a familyShow MoreRelatedA Study On Family Communication Pattern And Parenting Styles1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Parenting Styles Sami Schneider American Military University Instructor: Anna Rainey Course: CHFD 445 Family Communication Parenting Styles Parenting is never easy. The development of good communication skills is important because it helps ensure proper functioning in society. Children spend most of their time during their formative years with their family. There is not a book on how to raise children and there is more than one parenting style. Parenting styles are patterns of behaviorRead MoreHow Parenting Styles Affect Children Essay1583 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction In this paper, I will examine how parenting style affects an individuals relationship with his or her children. According to Baumrind, there are four main parenting styles, differentiated on levels of support and expectations. This paper focuses on parents with high support and high expectations,who are known as authoritative parents and those who are supportive with low expectations, who are are permissive. These four different styles of parenting lead to very different developmental outcomesRead MoreParenting Styles : A Parenting Style And Made A New System For Classifying Parents848 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthem the rules of life by using a specific parenting style. A parenting style is a psychological concept based on regular strategies that parents use while raising their children. Parenting is a complicated occupation that requires many different skills that work in concert to influence a childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Parental responsibilities start after the birth of the first child, and they impact the childÃ¢â¬â¢s overall life. Parents usually develop their parenting styles based on their cultures. This situationRead MoreBeing A Parent Is The Most1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdifferent parenting styles, and who also later discovered four dimensions with which each parenting style differed upon. These were: parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ warmth/ nurturance, discipline strategy, communication skills and expectations of maturity. Every so often, as children are continually developing, parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ask, Ã¢â¬Å"What could I have done differently?Ã¢â¬ What society has failed to shed light upon is the depth of communication and nurturance that needs to be present in not just a healthy parent Ã¢â¬â child relationship, butRead MoreParenting As A Child With Special Needs1328 Wor ds Ã |Ã 6 PagesParenting in Lesbian-Gay (LGBT) or Same-Sex Couple Homes. A review study (American Psychological Association, 2005) showed no evidence that lesbian or gay parents are unfit to parent children nor are the children under their care as parents are disadvantaged psychosocially or economically as compared with heterosexual couples. Nevertheless, this study admitted that data on LGBT parents are limited (American Psychological Association, 2005). The same findings were noted in another study (TelingatorRead MoreParenting Styles And The Parenting Style Essay1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction Parenting style used by caregivers plays an important role in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development and learning, specifically social emotional learning. Parents play a big role in their childÃ¢â¬â¢s academic achievement, especially depending on the parenting style use. The parenting style where the parents are involved and monitor their children is related to academic achievement and educational accomplishment (Spera, 2005). Parenting styles comprise of two dimensions, demandingness and responsivenessRead MoreParenting Styles and Their Effects on Children1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshave found patterns in parenting styles and their effects on children. Parenting isnÃ¢â¬â¢t only a collection of skills, rules, and tricks of the trade (Lloyd, Carol. 2012)Ã¢â¬ , it defines who you become, reflects your culture and represents values important in a family. Parenting style has a long term impact on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development, success and outlook on life. The three styles of parenting are permissive parenting/hands-off parenting , authoritarian parenting, authoritative parenting .Studies revealed thatRead MoreDiana Baumrind s Effect Of Parenting Styles On Children Essay1312 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDiana BaumrindÃ¢â¬â¢s effect of parenting styles on children Baumrind was born into a Jewish community in the New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s Jewish enclaves. She was the first two daughters of Hyman and Mollie Blumberg. Diana, the eldest in an extended family of female cousins, inherited the role of eldest son, which allowed her to participate in serious conversations about philosophy, ethics, literature, and politics. She completed her B.A. in Psychology and Philosophy at Hunter College in 1948, and her M.A. and Ph.D. inRead MoreWhat Are Some Effects Of Divorce Or Separation On Children?1496 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbe very damaging to children and can have adverse effects. (Anderson, 2014, pg 379) Although each family is different, divorce has been shown to cause problems in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s relationships with their parents, cause issues in their education, and a child may lose emotional security. (Anderson, 2014, pg 380) He or she possibly having to spend less time with each parent affects his or her relationship with the parent. (Anderson, 2014, pg 380) Ã¢â¬Å"Children of divorced parents are more likely to have lowerRead MoreEssay on Infancy and Early Childhood Development1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 PageschildÃ¢â¬â¢s development through observation and interaction. Development begins during the prenatal period on up to the early years and depends on the nutritional, medical, emotional, and intellectual support of parents, family members, caregivers, and teachers (Cherry, 2011). Parenting styles also play a role in what influences development as well as early childhood education programs. During the prenatal period when a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development begins, thus being aware of many factors that can damage the fetus
Easter 1916 Essay Easter 1916The 1916 Easter Rebellion spoke to the heart of Irish nationalism and emerged to dominate nationalist accounts of the origin and evolution of the Irish State. The decision by a hand- full of Irish patriots to strike a blow for Irish independence mesmerized the Irish people in its violent intensity and splendor. According to Richard Kearney, author of Myth and Terror, suddenly everything was dated Before or after Easter Week. The subsequent executions of the sixteen rebel leaders by the British authorities marked an incredible transformation from Irish patriots to their martyrdom, which came to represent the high-water mark of redemptive violence, a glorious beginning and a bloody ending. The initial reaction in Ireland to the Rising was shock and anger. Following the executions, the nationalist community closed ranks against the British government. The most famous reaction to the Rising is the poem Easter 1916 by the Irish poet, William Butler Yeats. In one respect, the poem is a product of its time and reflects the emotional impact of Easter Week. But, the power of Yeatss language and imagery transcends the event, and asks the question of all generations, O when may it suffice? In 1916, the political climate in Ireland was dangerously volatile, but few Irish citizens realized they were at the edge of an abyss. Most nationalists, William Butler Yeats included, were content with a promise by the British government to grant Ireland moderate independence, in the form of Home Rule, at the close of World War I. The Unionist population vowed to resist Home Rule and began organizing a heavily armed private militia. The Irish Diaspora and many Irish nationalists had little faith in the British governments willingness to install Home Rule and stand up to the unionists. Preoccupied by the Great War and desperate for able bodies, the British government made its fatal decision to enforce conscription in Ireland. Outcries by Irish republicans that Britain bore no right to Irish fodder for their war canons, helped pave the way for an uprising. Rebel leaders from the Irish Republican Brotherhood, the Irish Nationalist Volunteer Army, and James Connollys Citizens Army decided the time was ripe for a rebellion and adopted a familiar concept in Irish history, Englands trouble is Irelands opportunity. Like their predecessors in the rebellions of 1848 and 1867, the sixteen rebel leaders in the 1916 Rising emerged from the intellectual and literary community, including promising writers and poets. Men like Pearse and MacDonagh were products of the Irish Literary Revival, spearheaded by Yeats, during the Golden Age in Ireland. They exemplified the Irish mythological tradition to sacrifice in the name of dead generations, and to pick up where the Young Irelande rs left off. Pearse and many of his comrades never entertained any hope of surviving the Rising, or of defeating the British. The 1916 rebel leaders operated on the assumption that sacrifice obeys the laws of myth not politics. An Irish victory could only spring from defeat, and demanded the death of Irish heroes. According to Pearse and his comrades, they would lose the victory in life, but they would win it in death. Kearney points out that in The Coming Revolution Pearse wrote: we may make mistakes in the beginning and shoot the wrong; but bloodshed is a cleansing and a sanctifying thing, and the nation which regards it as the final horror has lost its manhood. According to Kearney, the rebel leaders realized that an eternal victory could be ensured only by a Rising that reached back to the roots of the Gaelic national spirit, and was energized by the memories of 1803, 1848, and 1867. The poem, Easter 1916, expresses Yeatss grief and horror at the events of Easter Week. Yeats began writing the poem within weeks of the executions in May 1916, and completed it two months later. The author initially withheld broad publication, only sharing the poem with a close circle of friends until 1920. At first reading, the poem is bewildering. Readers are not sure if the author is celebrating or condemning the rebel leaders and their insurrection. We know that Yeats is acquainted with the rebel leaders, but only in passing. Yeats reference to motley clothing indicates that some of the leaders were affiliated with the Abbey Theatre, the world of actors and clowns, a group rarely consumed by serious issues in Irish society: Being certain that they and I/But lived where motley is worn:Yeats acknowledges early in the first stanza that despite their hum-drum middle-class identities, (a frequent target for Yeats scorn) the rebels vivid faces betray a vibrant idealism and youthful ent husiasm, their eyes fixed on a changing future. Yeats cannot help but notice how the men stand out starkly against the background of an age gone by, the aristocratic and orderly world of Yeats:I have met them at close of dayComing with vivid facesFrom counter or desk among greyEighteenth-century houses.Kearney asserts that Yeatss use of is rather than was at the end of stanza one, forewarns of the tragic conflict to come. According to Kearney, Yeats emphasizes a central theme to the poem, that beauty is the offspring of terror. Horrific beauty is the offspring of terror, born not once, but something to be perpetually reborn now and in times to come:All changed, changed utterly:A terrible beauty is born. In the second stanza Yeats publicly apologizes and expresses his new-found respect for the middle-class. The author is compelled to revise his earlier ideas expressed in September 1913. Yeats pays humble tribute to the executed leaders as he one by one establishes their place in his tory. Of Pearse, a poet, writer and the head of St. Ednas, and MacDonagh, denied an opportunity to earn his own role as an Irish writer, by his untimely death, Yeats writes:This man had kept a schooland rode our winged horse;This other his helper and friend,Was coming into his force;He might have won fame in the end,So sensitive his nature seemed,So daring and sweet his thought.Although Yeats cannot forget MacBrides shortcomings and brutal treatment of Maude Gonne, he begrudgingly admits that the heroic sacrifice redeems any clown that has resigned his part in the casual comedy of Irish life:This other man I had dreamedA drunken, vainglorious lout. The Sin Of Nadab Abihu EssayThe combined contemporary political forces of 1916 including the conservative nationalism of John Redmond, the Home Rule Party and Yeats himself, failed to stem the tide of the rebellions political and cultural aftermath. The British executions delivered death to the Irish rebels, and simultaneously gave life to a new group of Irish martyrs. Events that spanned just a couple of weeks in 1916, ultimately drove a stake through the heart of constitutionalism nationalism, and Yeatss idea of a romantic, aristocratic Anglo- Irish Ireland. Kearney informs us that shortly after Yeats wrote Easter 1916, posters emerged around Dublin, paying tribute to the fallen martyrs. One poster depicted Patrick Pearse in a pieta position, supported by a tricolour-waving Mother Erin. The posters caption read All Is Changed. The Irish people wasted little time fulfilling Pearses prediction in his surrender statement to the British authorities, that though the Irish lost their victory in life, they would win it in death. Irish history after 1916 confirms Yeats fear of a cultic immortalization of the leaders blood sacrifice. The middle- class rebels whom Yeats held in such contempt, were responsible for all that was utterly changed and the terrible beauty that was born. Twelve months before his death, Pearse spoke at the graveside of ODonovan Rossa. Three-quarters of a century later, his immortalised words represent the heart of Irish republicanism: life springs from death and from the graves of patriot men and women spring living watersThe fools, the fools, the fools, they have left us our Fenian dead and while Ireland holds these graves Ireland unfree shall never be at peace.The executed patriots did indeed leave behind a legacy. The memory of their sacrifice continues to rise from their graves and inspire future generations to the cult of martyrdom. Now and in time to be,Wherever green is worn,Are changed, changed utterly:A terrible beauty is born.Works CitedAllison, Johathan, ed. Yeatss Political Identities: Selected Essays. Ann Arbor: TheUniversity of Michigan Press, 1996. Unterecker, John. A Readers Guide To William Butler Yeats. New York: Farrar, Straus Giroux, 1974.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
The Incident Command System (ICS) provides guidelines that highlight problems and coordination of incident response resources. The ICS has become the most used system of coordinating events in the world.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Two Emergency Response Scenario specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The ICS has five elements, which include command, planning, operations, logistics, and finance and administration. The event at scenario 1 heavily borrows from the ICS in order to draw a concrete response action plan (McEntire, 2007). Response action plan Recognition: the regional incident commander has recognized the hazardous event of two trainsÃ¢â¬â¢ collision. A chemical hauler and a high speed commuter train collide near the intersection of a major interstate highway in a very congested area. The response effort then commence in earnest in order to save lives. Search and rescue: most disaster result in vic tims trapped under debris. The involvements of hazardous materials released by the hauler train require organized search and rescue. Search and rescue should focus on three main areas. These include locating the victims, rescuing the victims from traps and providing initial first aid treatment in order to stabilize the victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ conditions (Coppola, 2007). The incident Commander must take note of the citizens who might come to the initial rescue. Rescue process must be performed within the next six hours in order to prevent further loss of lives and damages to property. The Incident commander must plan for more organized and technical search and rescue efforts through his formal search and rescue team to replace unequipped civilians. He must ensure that the search and rescue team have full cache of equipment and supplies. The team may focus on general search and rescue, and in the case involving Boron trichloride, he must call in chemical specialists and urban search and rescu e for swift action. Allocation of scarce resources: emergencies raise issues concerning scarcity of resources. The incident at scenario one is no exception. Therefore, the incident commander must allocate scarce resources using ethical and clinical guidelines.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Critical supplies that may be in short supplies include medication for the survivors, surgical supplies, and rescue team personal protective gears. The Incident Commander must ensure that these resources have controlled distribution to serve the majority. First aid medical treatment: the incident commander must note that the accident involves wounded people whose number may be above normal. Therefore, the victims may overwhelm the capacity of local clinics and hospitals. This is a case of mass casualty event. The regional incident commander must make arrangement quickly to locate th e injured victims, provide them with the first aid to maintain their conditions, and move them to nearby facilities for treatment needed to save their lives. The nature of chemical, Boron trichloride needs immediate onsite first aid and fire suppression. In order to avoid depletion of resources, the incident commander must take into account the supplies of basic first aid supplies, medical technicians, and transportation in a busy interstate junction to access adequate facilities for further treatment. Evacuation: the Boron trichloride seeks for immediate evacuation of the victims due to possibilities of fire breakout. The incident commander must move the victims away from the site of collision and its consequences. Evacuation will reduce the effects of many disasters by simply removing the victims from the site of risk. Disaster assessments: the incident commander must assess the extents and impacts of train collisions. The incident commander must begin collecting data for informat ion needed to facilitate the response processes. The Incident Commander must be able to know at any given moment what is taking place, where it is occurring, what the responders need, and what resources are available. The nature of incident at scenario 1 may increase in complexity due to its size and scope. In order to ease the task, incident commander must group the assessment into two groups. Situation or damage assessment to determine what has happened as a result of the two trains collisions. This will enable to determine geographic scope of the disaster, how it has affected people and structures.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Two Emergency Response Scenario specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, he must seek data related to the area affected, number of people affected, number of injured (morbidity) and killed (mortality), types of injuries and illnesses, conditions and characteristics of the vic tims. At the same time, data on medical, health, nutritional, water, and sanitation conditions of the victims are also necessary. The need assessments also involve a collection of data on ongoing or emerging hazards because of spread of Boron trichloride, damage to infrastructures and critical facilities, since the area is interstates connection point, residential and commercial structures affected, vulnerability of the affected population to ongoing, or expected related and unrelated hazards, and current response effort in progress. The need assessment involves the collecting data on services, resources and assistance the incident commander will require in addressing the train collision disaster. Treating the hazard: the consequences of the two trains collision may persist for a long duration due to chemical spreading around the scene. However, the incident commander must ensure that the responders must limit or eliminate the spread and hazardous effects of Boron trichloride. He mu st call in specialists with special equipment and training on the chemical managements. Responders must suppress fire, ensure hazardous Boron trichloride containment and decontamination, arrest of flows, remove snow and ice, manage possible public health consequences, and enforce the law to curtail rioting and looting. Provision of water, food, and shelter: the disaster is most likely to isolate the whole area for a long period of time. However, victims of the collision must drink, eat, and given shelter in cold winter season if they are to survive. The incident commander must plan for the interrupted normal supply line, and limited provisions of supplies to the victims. Likewise, there should be nonexistent of disaster management officials needed to start provisions of immediate assistance. Incident Commander must ensure that food, water, and shelter options are available to the victims. He must focus on both short-term immediate response and long-term provision of aid. However, he must arrange for first few hours of confusion that occurs and brings about haphazard responses.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Safety and security: the incident at scenario 1 disrupted the entire social order of the affected area of downtown Oakland California. The regional incident commander must take into account that the police and other response officials are engaged to their limits, paying most or all their time and resources on managing the hazardous consequences and spilled the chemicals. However, many security and safety problems still occur and even grow during disasters. The incident commander must be able to ensure the safety and security of the victims in commuter train, people unaffected but within the jurisdiction, and outside responders. Looting is a major challenge. Boron trichloride is a highly valuable chemical with many functions. Criminals get power to steal from the victims, cars as well as in the neighboring businesses and homes affected. In fact, the threat of looting is the major security threat the Oakland disaster is likely to experience, and it is most likely to disrupt the evacua tion and rescue efforts. Occasionally, assault on victims and response and recovery team may occur forcing the response efforts to be called off till security is restored. Emergency social services: victims of the train collision are likely to experience extreme psychological stress. Consequences of the Oakland tragedy may results into loss of spouses, parents, children, friends and other associates. There are also losses of business for the two train companies, Boron trichloride owners and other nearby affected businesses. The regional incident commander must arrange for proper psychological care so that victims do not slip into depression. Arranging for proper counseling will limit the extreme effects of depression. The Incident Commander must also arrange for the provision of counseling services to the respondent team because they experience emotional pain and suffering of the crash victims. Donations management: this disaster will experience donations of all kinds. Individuals, private business, governments and religious groups will tend to donate generously to support the crash victims who may have nothing at the moment. The Incident Commander must manage what is called a second disaster due to the presence of these donations. Cash is the most appropriate form of a donation because it can easily be used to purchase the supplies from local area. Cash is easily available and eliminates delays of transportation. Cash has no logistics-related costs and needs no storage space. The incident manager must put up action plan to cater for accepting, receiving, accounting, and distributing cash in a transparent manner. The incident manager must handle donations well to ensure that they benefit the intended stakeholders. Coordination: the incident commander must development an action plan for disaster coordination. Coordination is a vital and immediate component of disaster response because of the number of responding agencies that come to rescue of the victims. In o rder to save many lives, property, and alleviate suffering, the incident commander must ensure successful coordination and cooperation in safe and efficient use of response resources. Coordination process ensures that there are limited wastages, infighting, nonparticipation, confusions and inefficient use of resources during emergency situations. In order to ensure most effective coordination, the incident commander should ensure that the local government administration, emergency manager, fire officer, and police department should maintain leadership at all times. This is because the local response leaders are familiar with the crash area, affected people, infrastructure, geography and other issues necessary for successful response. In case the local leadership is unable to take leadership coordination, then the Incident Manager should ensure that the national government takes charge. Declaration of disaster: the Oakland California disaster is severe. The incident commander must ar range for disaster declaration. The government must acknowledge that response resources are limited and more support is necessary particularly to handle the spread of Boron trichloride. He must also put in legal requirements depending on the laws of Oakland California as established in emergency operations planning. The incident commander must allow the local government who has primary responsibility to respond to the emergency. The approach must be step-by-step as it goes high the national ladder. This only happens when the local authority cannot handle the disaster at the local level. The local authority must communicate this information to the local executives who then decide to declare the collision as a disaster and appeal to the next level of authority (California state government) for assistance. If the Boron trichloride is difficult to handle, then the state government must appeal to the federal government for assistance. Press brief Ã¢â¬Å"Hi, my name is John Dee, Senior Di saster Response Coordinator. I am giving a press brief concerning the Airbus 320 crash. On Friday of 16th December 2011, on or about 1720 PST, an Airbus 320 with 275 onboard missed the Lindberg Field and crashed. We suspect that the aircraft lost the field in the dense fog and lost the Lindberg Field. We have confirmed that the aircraft impacted on the vicinity of the City Hall. The crash happened at a densely populated area of San Diego. However, we have not confirmed the extent of the damages, and number of casualties involved. We have also confirmed that the aircraft hit three building. These are the Sempre Tower, the next building to it and the City Jail. We also have the report that the Sempre Tower is on fire and in danger of collapsing. There is aircraft debris scattered in the area around the three blocks in the northwest area of the impact zone. I must also let you that happened to have seen the crash site from my office and smell the smoke and when the building manager sou nded the fire alarm system. I will keep you posted with new developments as soon as we receive. I also wanted to know how you prefer to receive our press briefs via mail, fax or press conference. Thanks!Ã¢â¬ Coordination of immediate actions The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator shall coordinate the crash immediate response based on the Incident Command System (ICS). The ICS is necessary to provide a tool for command, control and coordination of immediate actions. It also provides means to coordinate the efforts of individual agencies to achieve a common goal of stabilizing the emergency and saving lives, property and protecting the environment. The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator must coordinate immediate action through the following (Damon and Erin, 2009). Command: Response coordinator must establish a framework within which a single leader or committee can control the growing disaster response effort. The coordinator must address all the activities taking place through out the crash scene. The San Diego crash may lead to an establishment of Unified Command for development of common set of rescue objectives and strategies, without requiring the local emergency authority to give up their power, responsibility, or accountability within their individual jurisdictions. The command structure must have representatives from all major rescue agencies. Planning: the Senior Disaster Response Coordinator must ensure that the planning section provides support through gathering, evaluating, disseminating and using information about the progress of the incident and the functional status of all the available responders and resources. The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator must create the Incident Action Plan (IAP) to provide overall management for the response. He must focus on collecting, evaluating and displaying incident information and intelligence. This part also looks into preparation of and documentation of IAPs, doing long-range contingency planning, cr eating plans for demobilization and tracking incident resources. Operations: operations look into response plan in IAP. The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator creates operation section to coordinate and manage all the activities of the crash responders geared towards saving lives, reducing immediate hazard, saving property and focus on activities moving towards recovery phase. Operation section has emergency services, public works and law enforcement. Logistics: the response of the crash depends on all the support and logistical provisions, which start as soon as the resources are deployed. Response tools include rescue team, equipment, facilities and vehicles. Logistics section looks into acquisition, transport and distribution of resources, provision of water, food and medical attention. Logistics section also ensures that there are personnel to operate the equipment and perform other logistics tasks. Finance and administration: this section tracks all the costs of the response process. The federal government must support the state of San Diego through its emergency funds. The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator must guarantee local and regional response agencies that he will cover for expenditures, supply uses, and activities. The Senior Disaster Response Coordinator must coordinate the activities form a central location known as an Emergency Operations Center (EOC). This is where all information and communications is collected, processed and disseminated. Crisis response plan Situation awareness: the Airbus 320 with 275 onboard has crashed. The aircraft landed on a highly populated commercial area vicinity of the City Hall. The aircraft has hit two to three large towers. These include Sempre Energy Tower, the next building to it, and the City Hall. There are scattered aircraft debris, and the Sempre building is on fire. Therefore, there is a need for emergency response. Emergency response: this should begin as soon as the Senior Disaster Response Coordi nator has recognized the problem. The first responder at the scene of crash must make a preliminary assessment and notify the officials. The Incident Commander must take charge and direct all emergency issues. Senior Fire Officer must take control of the fire at Sempre building. The Incident Commander takes control and establishes the resources needed. The Law Enforcement instruments will take charge of security and traffic control. The Incident Commander must ensure the removal of plane debris, cargo, and passengersÃ¢â¬â¢ luggage. Medical rescue team will take charge of the 275 onboard passengers involved in the crash. All communication must be directed to the operations section in the Command Post. All the officers in charge of the response must also direct all their communication to the Command Post. There must be coordination of air traffic next to the Lindberg Field to control airspace, keep it clear and limit the landings or takeoffs. Recovery: this comes after the emergency response. It attempts to restore normalcy in the area of Airbus crash. It involves declaration of the disaster, controlling access and clearing the remains, debris and restoring public infrastructures. Recovery also involves looking into insurance claims, providing social services, investigations, readjusting traffic, providing counseling services, and restoring the economic activities of San Diego crash scene. Directions and controls: the Incident Commander must look into all activities and control them. In case of disaster declaration, the senior officials exercise all controls and give directions. They must establish Command Post near the crash scene to control all emergency operations. References Coppola, D. P. (2007). Introduction to International Disaster Management. Boston: Elsevier Inc. Coppola, D. and Erin, K. M. (2009). Communicating Emergency Preparedness: Strategies for Creating a Disaster Resilient Public. New York: Auerbach Publications. McEntire, D. A. (2007). Disast er Response and Recovery. New York: John Wiley. This case study on Two Emergency Response Scenario was written and submitted by user Harlow Hebert to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
A StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Complete Guide to Writing a Religious Studies Research Paper Research papers may be one of the hardest papers to write. This is true whether you are taking a high school or a college class. However, research papers donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to be hard if you know what you are doing. This guide on how to write a religious studies research paper will outline some of the finer points on how to research effectively, how to pick a topic, and how to write an edit a research paper. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s get started! Topics and Topic Suggestions for an Amazing Religious Studies Research Paper Picking a topic for a religious studies research paper can be tough, but weÃ¢â¬â¢re here to help. Keep in mind that research papers need to be fact-based, not opinion based. Below are some topics with prompts on how you can use them in your own reference paper. You can use any of these topics and prompts for your research paper. How Was the Jewish Faith Changed by the Holocaust? Over six million Jews were killed during the Holocaust. Did this change the Jewish religion? How did the average Jewish person relate to religion after this terrible event? Keep the question, Ã¢â¬Å"How could a loving God allow something like this to happen?Ã¢â¬ It is a question many Jewish people had during and after the war. Is Islam a Peaceful or Violent Religion? Many people see Islam as a violent religion because of the rise of terrorist groups with primarily Muslim members. However, others see Islam as a peaceful religion. Which of these statements are true? Use verses from the Quran to back up your stance. The History of RELIGION OF YOUR CHOICE. Give a brief history of any religion. If this topic is too large to fit your page requirement, then try giving a history of a singular religious event or holiday, like Easter, Passover, or Ramadan, instead. Religious Creation Stories and Mythology Religious books often have creation stories, like of Genesis in the Bible. Mythologies also often have creation stories. Are there any creation stories from religious texts that match up with myths? How do you account for this similarity? Divides in the Church and Why They Happen The Christian church began to split almost in the same instant it was formed. Why were there so many divisions in the church? One of the most famous splits you may want to write about is Martin LutherÃ¢â¬â¢s division from the Catholic church, which inadvertently created Lutheranism. Research Tips from Our Academic Writers As the name suggests, research papers are primarily research-based. This means that your research paper should focus on the facts. To focus on the facts, you are first going to need to find out the facts. The best way to do this is through research, but sometimes researching can be difficult and frustrating, so letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at some of the ways you can find great information without stressing out. One of the best ways to find reliable sources is to search through your schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s online library website. Most colleges and some high schools have websites like this. If you do not know where to find the website, search through your schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s homepage. There will likely be a link to the library page. Once you find your schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s library page, search for your topic. Usually typing in a few keywords should help to get the job done. From there, you can refine your searches to see books, articles, and web pages. If your school library hosts the content, then thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a good chance that it is a reliable source. If your school does not have an online library, then you can always use Google to find sources. Type in any questions or main points you want to include in your paper. If you are writing a research paper on a topic, it is likely someone has already posted information on it. The tricky part is knowing whether a source is reliable or not. This article provides some tips to know if a resource is great or bad. Another way to find good sources online is to use Google Scholar, which will always pull up scholarly articles, rather than random articles from anywhere on the web. Writing Tips for Religious Studies Research Papers Now that weÃ¢â¬â¢ve looked at how to effectively research, letÃ¢â¬â¢s look at what to do with that research. This section will contain various tips that can be used to help organize your information, write each section of your research paper, and edit the paper once you are finished. Pre-Writing Suggestions Making an outline is one of the best things you can do to organize your paper before you even start writing it. An outline can be a highly structured document that states all of your main points and the evidence that you are going to use to back up your main points. If that sounds too complicated for you, writing an outline using the main points or headings that you are going to use is another way to create an outline. In fact, this very article was made with a simple outline. It looked something like this: Introduction Topics Topic Suggestions Research Tips Writing Tips Pre-writing tips Take Notes Research Paper Writing Introduction Body Paragraphs Conclusion Reference Page Post-Writing Tips Conclusion While this outline only states the basic headings used in the article and some headings which are implied, but not actually written, this outline works to organize the article. Even something as simple as an outline like above can help you to organize your paper. A bonus feature of an outline is that it saves time in the long-run. Since all of the headings, main points, and more can be written out ahead of time, you are less likely to get stuck with writerÃ¢â¬â¢s block while you are actually writing your paper. Take Notes Another important pre-writing task you can do is to take all of your notes before you even begin writing your paper. Like outlining, this is likely to take up more time in the beginning, but it will save time when you actually work on writing your paper. This is because you will not need to stop writing to look up a fact or figure. When you are taking notes, make sure to write down anything you might want to include in your paper. Whether you think you will come back to the source or not, it is also best to write down all of the information for your source so you can easily find it again if you need it. Even if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need it, writing down all of the important information (title, author, page number(s), etc.) can help you to write your citation so you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to look up the information to write your citation later. Even better, write your sources directly into your page to save even more time. Research Paper Writing: Steps to Follow Once your outline is written and all of your research is done, all that is left to do is write the actual paper. While it may sound difficult, your writing should be able to flow smoothly if you already have all of your notes by your side. There are four basic components to every term paper: the introduction, body paragraphs, conclusion, and reference page. In this section, we will take a look at how to write each of these sections well. Introduction The introduction is often one of the hardest parts of a research paper for students to write. Perhaps this is because you are expected to introduce a paper you havenÃ¢â¬â¢t written yet. Some students find it useful to skip this section and return to it once they have written the rest of their paper. One of the most important aspects to include in an introduction is the thesis statement. A thesis statement is usually one-sentence long and contains the main point(s) of the paper. A good thesis statement will be specific and clear. Basically, if a stranger (or your teacher) were to read your thesis statement, they should have a good idea on what your paper is about. If you read your own thesis statement and it doesnt meet that one goal, then you should rewrite your thesis statement. Body Paragraphs In most essays and research papers, there are usually at least three body paragraphs per paper. Depending on the page length requirement set by your teacher or professor, you may have more than three body paragraphs. Body paragraphs are important, not only because they make up the bulk of your research paper, but because they support your main statement which was written in your thesis statement. Each body paragraph should begin with the main point of its own that helps to back up your thesis statement. For example, if your research paper is about the history of Christianity, some of the topics of your body paragraphs could include the birth of Jesus, his death, and events like the Council of Nicea. Each body paragraph needs to have a distinct topic that relates to the main point of your research essay. Begin each body paragraph with its own introduction, introducing the main point of the paragraphs. The next few sentences should contain evidence to back up the statement made in the first sentence of the paragraph. The last sentence should be a conclusion that wraps up the body paragraph nicely. Conclusion After writing all of your body paragraphs, itÃ¢â¬â¢s finally time to move on to the conclusion of your research paper. This paragraph should be easy enough to write. However, some students may find it difficult to sum up their whole paper in one paragraph, especially if their research paper was rather lengthy. One of the best ways to begin your conclusion is to restate your thesis statement. Do not quote yourself directly, but instead rephrase or summarize your thesis statement. Next, try to sum up each of your body paragraphs with one sentence each. If you have more than three or four body paragraphs, then you may want to only summarize a few of your most important body paragraphs. Lastly, sum up your conclusion paragraph with a short one-sentence conclusion of its own. Reference Page Once you have all of your writing down, itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to write up your reference page. Most religious studies classes are likely to require you to use MLA or APA formatting. When making a reference page, always make sure to arrange your citations so that they are in alphabetical order. Below are some examples of a source we used for this article in both MLA and APA formatting so you can get an idea of how itÃ¢â¬â¢s done. APA Thomson, D. (2014, October 2). Ã¢â¬Å"10 Research Tips of Finding Answers Online.Ã¢â¬ Retrieved from https://blog.ted.com/10-research-tips-for-finding-answers-that-elude-you/ MLA Thomson, Danielle. Ã¢â¬Å"10 Research Tips for Finding Answers Online.Ã¢â¬ TED Blog, TED Conferences, LLC, 2 Oct. 2014, blog.ted.com/10-research-tips-for-finding-answers-that-elude-you/. Post-Writing How to Get Over It Quickly Once you are done writing your research, itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to do some editing! While editing isnÃ¢â¬â¢t fun, it is effective. By editing, you can catch all of your mistakes (and fix them) before your teacher catches them and marks your grade down for it. There are a few basic steps that can help you to edit your research paper quickly. The first thing to do is to simply read over your paper to see if you can catch any mistakes. You can also have a friend read over your paper, as it never hurts to have an extra pair of eyes look over your work. Next, run your paper through a grammar and spelling checker. While most word processors, like Microsoft Word and Google Docs, have grammar and spelling checkers of their own, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t always catch every single mistake. Using an online checker, like Grammarly, can help you catch additional mistakes. Finally, make sure you run your research paper through a plagiarism checker. The last thing you want is to put in hard work on a research paper, only to fail because you had a bit of accidental plagiarism. To avoid this fate, use an online plagiarism checker, like Turnitin. We hope that these tips and tricks can help you to write an A+ research paper. Keep this article as a reference to use whenever you need to write a research paper, whether it be for your religious studies class or for another class. Good luck with your paper!
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Winning Ideas to Create Research Articles Winning Ideas to Create Research Articles Research articles are made up of results achieved from conducting original research. These results can be obtained through either primary or secondary analysis.Ã Fundamental research involves collecting and capturing information directly from the source. Secondary research includes obtaining information from the previous researches done by others and recording it. The essential requirement of a research paper is to look for information relating to the topic, taking a stand/side on the issue and providing evidence for the position taken in an organized manner. The objective of the paper is the essence of a research paper. Ã A good research paper shows the findings of the research in a clear and concise manner without being mixed up by the wordplay of the author. A cook follows a written recipe to prepare a delicious meal. It is also the same with the author. There is a guideline/recipe that an author should use for him/her to have an interesting research paper. The following is a guideline to writing a good research paper. Selecting the Topic Choosing your topic is the first and the most crucial step in a research project. Before choosing a research topic, a student/author should ask himself/herself such questions: Has this topic been researched upon extensively? Is this topic unique and timely? Is it coherent with my career choice? A student should always choose a topic that he/she is interested. Whenever possible, the author needs to choose a topic that he/she is passionate about. For example, if you are interested in Business Management, write things that involve business issues or evolution of businesses. Do not deviate from your topic. Always consult with your friends and teachers about your chosen topic to get new ideas. If you realize that the topic you chose is not right for you, do not hesitate change. Researching the Topic After selecting a topic suitable for you, you should now start researching. Research can be done using several resources such as journal articles, web pages, books, posts on various blogs, interviews, newsletters, and magazines. You can also apply different online research methods that are well-known these days. Do not rely on one or two sources rather, use at least five sources. Books should be your primary tools to use when researching. Reading as much as you can will help you understand and connect things clearly. You will have the ability to see and seal any loopholes in your research. Analyze and Plan Every type of writing has its own approach. If your research becomes complicated for you, you can prepare a flowchart so that you can know all the stages in a sequence and prepare for them. Print out the research you have gathered online, highlight the key areas in the books you have read and read your research again. Identify if your research paper is argumentative or analytic. An argumentative research paper involves the author taking a side and arguing from that perspective. An analytic paper is prepared when the author freshly reviews an important issue. Lastly, the author should know his/her audience. If you are writing to people who are conversant with topic, you need not explain your ideas using theories. Preparing the Draft of a Research Article Organize your outline. Include in-text citations at the end of an important point. Depending on your paper requirements, follow the formatting guidelines in every part of your paper. You should acknowledge authors by citing your research paper. This is always mandatory. Inserting your citations properly will reduce the chances of your paper being rejected. Preparing the Final Draft Put aside your draft for a day before revising it for you to see any gaps. Rethink your ideas and organize again your paragraphs and sentences when revising. Read your paper out loud or have someone read it for you. Put it all together using the format authorized by your institution. Some universities have their unique way of formatting papers. Your supervisor should assist you by ensuring that the format is correct and the citations well placed before submission. To summarize, there are ten stages that experts go through to ensure that their research article is lovely and entertaining to their readers. The ten steps will help you in creating a hypothesis, testing your ideas and presenting your findings: First, always choose a topic that is right for you. You should enjoy studying and researching it. Secondly, plan your dissertation by creating an outline to organize and reasonably present ideas. Third, make use of transitions. This communicates to the readers that you are moving from one topic to another. Also separate your ideas using paragraphs. Two different ideas should not be put in one section instead, create a new paragraph for a different idea. Direct quotes should be included in your dissertation. They act as pieces of evidence from your sources. The direct quote should prove a point for your topic. Sixth, your paper should be formatted correctly with the help of your supervisor. Continue to write your draft so that it is error free. Ensure your research article has citations that are well placed. All sources should be cited. Create a desirable title for your article. Your topic should go hand in hand with your hypothesis. Lastly, form a memorable conclusion that should prove your point. At our service, we are committed to providing students with expert research paper writing help on different topics and disciplines.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Democracy and Religion in Developing Countries - Essay Example In the Muslim world, particularly developing countries issues concerning political democracy are raised with special force because of the strength of the Islamic resurgence and the intensity of the demands in recent years which demand better political processes. Before examining the application of democracy in Islamic countries, there is a need to analyze the significance of Islam in politics. Islamic politics according to modern Islamic movements and what history tells us is a combination of religion and politics for the reason that medieval Islamic civilization of the Umayyads and the Abbasids followed non-state structures based on the grounds of religious faith and action (Esposito & Voll: 4). This indicates that the true implication of democracy in the Muslim era was followed by the belief that the most pious person among the society was supposed to be selected by civilians as well as by his followers. The current political culture of liberal secular societies never concern about God and never weighs God's approval or disapproval of their policies or behaviour. For this reason one can see that even religious political struggles and negotiations differ a lot when compared to those of the past. This clearly indicates that today's liberal democratic governments pursue people's happiness to the exclusion of God's approval (Sadri & Sadri: 122). Democratic Political Systems The concept of democracy followed in Islamic countries encompasses Islamic activist movements that challenge government while supporting others. What usually happens in this era is that in the political interests of Islamic revivalist groups, revolutionary opposition takes place which leads them either to ruling governments, or such movements may participate in the ruling political system as opposition movements. Many times it is seen that such religious movements are based as they are crucial part of the government or are themselves the ruling force in the political system. Such a perspective of democracy is based on a broad spectrum that gives us an overview of different situations within which Islamic democratization exists. Therefore such situations are: (1) revolutionary democracy to the ruling political government (2) legal or cooperating democracy that works within the boundaries of political system (3) active participation as a democratic government alliance which works wit h other political forces and (4) the system that controls and leads the existing political system. The above situations as practiced by most of the Islamic countries shapes the nature of emerging democratic ideals in the Islamic world as well as the developing and influenced new political orders in Islam. Democracy in the Middle East As far as Islamic law and order is concerned, it is severely implemented in the region except for the positive peace in the Middle East. Countries like Iraq, Iran and Israel are pervaded with armed conflicts in various types and forms like regional conflicts, resource wars, separatist and nationalist conflicts and irredentist conflicts. However some countries are influenced by other ethnic, religious and tribal struggles to the extent where their democratic power is heavily influenced under revolutionary and fundamentalist struggles. The peoples and governments throughout the Middle East are thus confronting pro-democracy anti-colonial struggles. Middle Eastern democratic trend follows violent conflicts and does not fulfil the criteria of positive peace in the region which is the utmost ground for building a democratic
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Alexander Graham Bell 1847-1922 - Essay Example On 3rd March 1847, in the town of Edinburgh, Scotland, Eliza Grace Symonds and Professor Alexander Melville Bell were blessed with a son, Alexander Bell. His father, Professor Alexander Melville Bell, was a famous speech expert or elocutionist and teacher of deaf people. Alexander had two other brothers namely, Edward Charles Bell and Melville James Bell. However, both of them later passed on after ailing from Tuberculosis. Interestingly, the name Ã¢â¬ËGrahamÃ¢â¬â¢ was only added when he was 11 years of age after he made a request to equally have a middle name as the rest of his siblings. Most of his childhood years were spent in Scotland with his father acting as a personal tutor. Evidently, Alexander made his first innovation at the age of 12 by inventing a machine that had the capacity to remove the husks of wheat grains and clean them at the same time. The dehusking machine was composed of revolving paddles and pairs of nailbrushes. The machine was adopted by many mill compan ies since it assisted in speeding up of wheat processing. At age 15, he enrolled at Royal High School but left after only four semesters. At the age of 16, Alexander attained a job at the Weston House Academy in Elgin Scotland. His job description was as a part time teacher and pupil of music and speech. Incidentally, his father was against the idea of him pursuing any career within the department of science. However, Alexander maintained his pursuit of science as he wanted to emulate both his grandfather and father. At the Weston House, Alexander took up some Greek and Latin courses and later became a teacher of the same. His charges for remuneration of services rendered were boarding and accommodation at the institution and 10 pounds per lesson. Alexander later attended the University of Edinburg at the age of 17. Incidentally, his brother Edward was enrolled at the same University before his untimely demise on May, 1870. On April of 1871, Alexander relocated to Boston,
Friday, January 24, 2020
Analysis of the Play Beauty and the Beast Beauty and the Beast was an amazing musical, many say it was much better than the movie. Just like the movie. It starts off in a faraway land, with the Young Prince who lived in a shining castled. The prince was spoiled, selfish and unkind. An old beggar woman came to the castle and offered him a single rose in return for shelter from the bitter cold. Repulsed by her haggard appearance, the Prince sneered at the gift and turned the old woman away. The old woman warned him not to be deceived by appearances, for beauty is to be found within. And when he sent her away again, the old woman's ugliness melted away to reveal a beautiful enchantress. The Prince tried to apologise, but it was too late. As punishment, she transformed him into a hideous beast and placed a powerful spell on the castle and all who lived there. The Rose she had offered was truly an enchanted rose. If he could learn to love another and earn their love in return before the last petal fell, the spell would be br oken. If not, he would be doomed to remain a Beast for all time. In a little town, a young girl by the name of belle arrives. The Towns people despite their admiration for Belle's beauties think of Belle as odd and peculiar because of her favourite thing to do is to read. Gaston, a handsome, skilful hunter who has fallen in love with Belle. Gaston is obsessed with belle marrying him and will not give up. Meanwhile, Belle slips away and goes home to...
Thursday, January 16, 2020
MARVEL ENTERTAINMENT GROUP Bankruptcy and restructuring Introduction Marvel entertainment group was started by Martin Goodman in 1939. It originally was a comic book business, known as Marvel Comics now. We have no way to forget the images of X-men, Spider-Man, and Thor. Marvel Entertainment Group has had a glorious history, and a dominant position in the comic market. However, this glorious empire regretfully elapsed in the end. The historical rise and fall influences not only comic fansÃ¢â¬â¢ life, but most importantly to its investors and the financial market.Here we discuss in detail about the reason Marvel file for bankruptcy, the evaluation of the restructuring plan, equity worth per share under restructuring plan, its influence on the debt rising ability to other firms in the group, and why the portfolio managers choose to sell their zero coupon bonds. Part 1 Analyzing problems: why did Marvel file for Chapter 11? Were the problems caused by bad luck, bad strategy, or bad ex ecution? After taking a deep look into its performance of a six-year period, we reached the conclusion that the fall of this comic star is mainly caused by bad strategy it adopted, especially the one to acquire Skybox.Though the first two issuance of debt did bring along good operating results, MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s core business began to falter shortly after the third issuance. The sales of three major business lines: Sports and Entertainment Cards, ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Activity Stickers, and Published comic books all decline significantly after 1993. The main reason for this decline can be explained by the fact that child entertainment is becoming more diversified, with alternatives appearing such as video games. Besides that, collectorsÃ¢â¬â¢ declining willingness to invest in comic books drive the sales down dramatically.However, these reasons have little things to do with luck: because a successful and experienced entertainment company like Marvel should have the ability to notice thi s kind of demand change. What is more, sufficient market research should also be done when deciding long-term business strategies. But the creator of Spider man really disappointed us by heading for a totally wrong direction at the turning point of this industry. To be qualified as a bad strategy adopter, Marvel decided to acquire Skybox in 1995. At that time, Marvel has a leverage ratio as high as 52%, which made it hard to pay back the huge debt when revenues are declining.Moreover, the declining demand for entertainment cards will make this expansion unlikely to boost its revenues. We can see more clearly from its operating and financing ratios that this acquisition resulted in worse performance of the whole Marvel group. MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s operating and leverage ratios 1991 Operating Ratios Sales Cost of Sales Cost of Sales/Sales SG&A SG&A/Sales Net Income Net Income/Sales Leverage Ratios Total Debt Shares Outstanding Share Price Market Value of Equity Debt/D+E EBITDA EBITDA/Sales Interest Expenses EBITDA/Interest $115. 10 58. 50. 57% 21. 4 18. 59% 16. 1 13. 99% 1992 $223. 80 112. 6 50. 31% 43. 4 19. 39% 32. 6 14. 57% 355. 3 98. 6 12 1183. 2 23. 09% 67. 8 30. 29% 6. 5 10. 43 1993 $415. 20 215. 3 51. 86% 85. 3 20. 54% 56 13. 49% 324. 7 102. 6 26 2667. 6 10. 85% 114. 6 27. 60% 14. 6 7. 85 1994 $514. 80 275. 3 53. 48% 119. 7 23. 25% 61. 8 12. 00% 585. 7 103. 7 16 1659. 2 26. 09% 119. 8 23. 27% 16. 5 7. 26 1995 $829. 30 538. 3 64. 91% 231. 3 27. 89% -48. 4 -5. 83% 934. 8 101. 3 12 1215. 6 43. 47% 34. 7 4. 18% 43. 2 0. 80 1996 $581. 20 372. 4 64. 07% 168 28. 90% -27. 9 -4. 0% 977 101. 8 4 407. 2 70. 58% 40. 8 7. 02% 42. 7 0. 96 97. 7 5 488. 5 35. 5 30. 84% 3. 5 10. 14 As we can see from the number facts above, both operating and leverage ratios show that bad performance of the company became even worse after the acquisition. On one hand, during this six-year period, MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s operating ratios decreased greatly: Net Income/ Sales dropped from 13. 99% of 1991 to -4. 80% of 1996. Besides, the cost of Sales/Sales rose significantly from 50. 57% to 64. 07%. At the same time, SG&A/Sales also increased from 18. 6% to 28. 9%.On the other hand, the leverage ratios also showed that the leverage is already quite high before it made the acquisition decision. During the period from 1991 to 1995, the operating results were not satisfying and leverage coverage kept falling. Based on this situation, MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s decision makers still expanded further, resulting in a worse situation: after the acquisition, its interest coverage ratio dropped rapidly to only 0. 96; the EBITDA/Sales ratio also declined to 7. 02%. Therefore, we can see clearly that the bad strategy Marvel adopted is the main reason for its bankruptcy.When facing with both an internal problemÃ¢â¬âfinancial distress, and external threatsÃ¢â¬âdeclining demand for cards, Marvel should absolutely seek growth within existing business rather than impudently expand through acquiring Skyb ox. Part 2 Evaluation of the proposed restructuring plan: will it solve the problems that caused Marvel to file Chapter 11? As Carl Icahn, the largest unsecured debt holder, would you vote for the proposed restructuring plan? Why or why not? In early 1996, Perelman announced a restructuring plan in order to bail out.According to the plan, $365 million would be invested in Marvel in exchange for 427 million new Marvel shares to maintain the 80% ownership; Marvel would acquire Toy Biz, using its revenue to serve MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s debt and offset MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s NOLs; debt with a face value of $894. 1 million would shift into equity. In our perspective, this new plan can only solve part of MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s recent problems, while it would be helpless to completely help the company out. The proposed restructuring plan is supposed both to relief MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s debt burden and to increase the liquidity. To achieve this goal, Marvel planned to increase equity investment, and retire 894. milli on of debt, whose interest would be secured by 77. 3 million of MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s shares. In these cases, Marvel would acquire new financing support without giving away part of its ownership, which is vital for the tax and NOLs purpose of the company. Besides, the leverage ratio would decrease sharply as a large proportion of debt would turn into equity, given that the market price of stock would not decline significantly. As a result, the plan could solve the liquidity problem of Marvel, as well as solve the problem that led Marvel to violate specific bank loan covenants.However, the company misemployed the newly acquired liquidity in the wrong place. Rather than transforming its original business strategy, which is problematic, into newly emerging industries such as video games to increase revenue, Marvel would maintain its original business lines, majority of which face downturns in the market. At the meantime, Marvel would continue to expand its current business by acquiring remai ning shares of Toy Biz. As what was mentioned previous in this report, the main reason why Marvel filed Chapter 11 was that it mistakenly bought business that produces non-demanded products.S&P downgraded the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s debt by noting that MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s earnings Ã¢â¬Å"have fallen while it has added debt to make acquisitionsÃ¢â¬ . To acquire Toy Biz, an estimated $361. 5 million would be paid in cash by Marvel. Though Marvel believed that the acquisition would help generate sustainable cash flow to the company, we consider the revenue of Toy Biz, a company which is closely related to MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s current business lines, is far from guaranteed as a foreseeable downturn in traditional entertainment industry. It means that the relieved debt burden could be ultimately offset by the prudent acquisition.Marvel would be inevitable in crisis. Furthermore, the debt holders, debt of whom would be transformed into equity, would not be fully paid off. After the restructuring plan w as announced, the stock price of Marvel plummeted. From what was shown in Exhibit 3, MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s stock price continued to decline afterwards. Under the downward pressure of share price, the value of the collateral shares for the bonds are now much lower than it used to be at the time of the bonds being issued. In other words, the new shares could now only cover partially the face value of original bonds.For Carl Icahn, the largest unsecured debt holder who would have to invest in the highly discounted share once the restructuring plan is passed, whether or not its investment could be paid back would be doubtful. Though Bear Stearns, a company who prepared financial projections for MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s acquisition of Toy Biz, predicted modest growth for Marvel and significant growth for Toy Biz, and that Marvel was valued more as a going concern, the argument of Bear Stearns is questionable and hard to be guaranteed. Therefore, as Carl Icahn, we would not vote for he proposed restruct uring plan. Part 3 Evaluation of MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s equity: how much is MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s equity worth per share under the proposed restructuring plan assuming it acquires Toy Biz as planned? What is your assessment of the pro forma financial projections and liquidation assumptions? We proceed to estimate equity worth per share by employing the capital cash flow method. Capital cash flow valuation incorporates mainly two approaches: starting with NI or starting with EBIT. Concerning the difficulty of reaching for such items as EBIT, we prefer the NI method particularly.Then the whole valuation process could be divided into two parts: calculation of PV (CCF) and number of shares. Part 1: PV (CCF) How to determine the discount rate is crucial for PV (equity value). This valuation uses data from Exhibit 10. Marvel entertainment group asset beta Risk-free rate Risk premium Pre-tax WACC Note: Pre-tax WACC = Rf + ? a * risk premium We use the five-year yields on US treasury bills, notes, and b onds for correspondence with our estimation time range starting from 1997 and ending in 2001. It gives us the pretax WACC as 11. 35%, used as our discount rate in the case. Then we proceed to the next section of CCF, based on information on Exhibit 9. Table 3. 1 has all the calculations shown in explicit steps with our desired result as equity value = 435. 99. Part 2: number of shares outstanding Up till now, equity value per share is only one step away with the missing number of shares, which is presented directly underneath Exhibit 6, as 528. 8 Therefore, we can come straightforward to the final calculation as: Equity value per share = 435. 99/528. 8 = 0. 2 What makes this case special is that distressed M&A could offer substantial corporate strategy opportunities in the troubled economic times ahead, while at the same time, the value of such opportunities could often be hidden amidst the confusion and distress of bankruptcy, such as the one listed as follows. Liquidation value is presented in table 3. 2. 0. 65 6. 36% 7. 5% 11. 235% Part 4 Will it be difficult for Marvel or other companies in the MacAndrews and Forbes holding company to issue debt in the future? Yes. It will become much harder for other companies in the MacAndrews and Forbes holding company o issue debt in the future, under the influence of MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s bankruptcy. In 1995, S&P and MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s downgraded the holding companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ debt from B to B-. Again, in 1996, MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s downgraded MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s public debt once more. After the huge volume debt of Marvel downgraded by two rating agencies, Marvel had announced that it would violate specific bank loan covenants due to decreasing revenues and profits. Because downgrading of debt increases the chance of default, and the default probability would surely bring difficulties to other companies in the MacAndrews and Forbes holding company to issue new debt.This would happen step by step. First, the low credit rating indicates a hi gh risk of defaulting on a loan and, hence leads to high interest rates or the refusal of a loan by the creditor. Then, Investors realize this risk and therefore would require a higher default premium to compensate the risk. After that, increased default premiums would raise the cost of capital for the holding company. Given the increased risk premium and default possibilities, Marvel and other companies in the MacAndrews and Forbes holding group would having more difficulties issuing new debt in the future.Some difficulties would be generated from Perelman, because debt holders and creditors where raising questions about the integrity on the judgment decisions from Perelman. Judge Balick approved Marvel did not discriminate unfairly against non-affecting creditor classes and provided it was fair and equitable to all classes. In reaction, a lawyer challenged the Bearn SternÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusions and insinuated Bearn Sterns had multiple levels of conflicts due to the contingency fee p rovided by Perelman. In the end even the Vice-Chairman of the Andrew group had to come with a statement to overcome all the negative sounds in the market.Anyhow it looks like PerelmanÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation was damaged already. Also, this would influence the whole companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation and the credibility of issuing new debt. Part 5 Why did the price of MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s zero-coupon bonds drop on Tuesday, November 12, 1996? Why did portfolio managers at Fidelity and Putnam sell their bonds on Friday, November 8, 1996? On Nov 12, 1996, MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s zero-coupon bonds fell by more than 50% when the spokesman for the Andrews Group announced the details of the proposed restructuring plan. According to he announcement, Perelman was to purchase, through Perelman-related entities, 410 million shares of newly-issued Marvel common for $0. 85 per share, 81% discount to the then prevailing market price of $4. 625. After Marvel met the managers of Fidelity and Putnam, those two institutional investors sold their Marvel bonds on hand immediately in response of the meeting before the announcement of the restructuring plan. Public holders predict Fidelity and Putnam should have the insider information about the restructuring plan.Their action made the public holder feels the restructuring plan is not favor to the bond holder and therefore sold it to avoid a greater loss. Apart from that, MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s zero-coupon bonds were secured by its equity, rather than the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s assets or operating cash flows. Due to the problem Marvel suffered, their share price dropped. Once the stock price dropped below $11. 6 per share, the collateral would not be sufficient to cover the debts. The public debt holders might consider that these bonds were no longer worthy to be held to maturity while the credit risk soared. Therefore they sold the bonds in arge quantity under the deteriorated signals in the market. As a result, the bond price plunged. Due to the restructuring plan, t he prices of MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s shares and bonds dropped 41% and 50% respectively. On Nov 8, 1996, Howard Gittis, vice chairman of Andrews Group, called Fidelity Investments and Putnam Investments, two of the largest institutional holders of MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s public debt, and asked them what they would like to see in are structuring plan. Portfolio managers at Fidelity and Putnam decided to sell more that $70 million of Marvel bonds at a price of $0. 37 per dollar of face value on the next day.Perhaps, during this conversation, they got some detail information of the plan which proved the present value of MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s bonds was overvalued. It gave the chance for them to avoid tens huge losses in diminished value that would have followed and suffer the time they continued to hold the bonds already existing facts were revealed. To explain the portfolio managers at Fidelity and Putnam sell their bonds on Friday, November 8, 1996, we can compare the value of the bond value at the market a nd the expected equity value belong to the public holders after restructuring, Bond value on November 8, 1996, Face value of $894mn X 0. 37per dollar of face value = $ 330mn Equity value belong to the public holders after restructuring, $ 77mn shares X $0. 49 (our projected equity worth per share) = $ 38mn We found that the market value of the Marvel bond is far higher than the value of the future equity worth belongs to the bondholders. So, the bond selling price of Fidelity and Putnam is relatively much attractive rather than the converted equity value after the restructuring plan. ConclusionIn the above analysis, we reached at the conclusion that MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s bankruptcy mainly resulted from its bad strategy and management problems. First, it chose to expand in a wrong time and to a wrong direction. Second, its restructuring decision can only solve its liquidity problem temporarily, and Carl Icahn should veto the restructuring plan. Third, Marvel Entertainment Group in this cas e will have bad influence on other companies and make it hard for them to issue new debt in the future. We also use the capital cash flow method to calculate the equity worth under the restructuring plan.Generally speaking, it does sound that attractive and only resulted in investorsÃ¢â¬â¢ chagrin. Table 3. 1 (millions) Net (loss) income + depreciation or amortization Ã¢â¬â change in working capital Ã¢â¬â capital expenditure + amortization of goodwill Ã¢â¬â equity in net (loss) income in unconsolidated subsidiaries + minority interest in Toy Biz + provision for deferred taxes +Interest Capital cash flow Growth rate of each year Geometric growth rate Discount rate Present value of CCF Sum of Present value Debt value of Sept. 996 Equity value ? ? ? Terminal cash flow = CCF2001 * (1+g)/(r-g) We use geometric average here because of the rule of thumb: the more volatile the return stream, the more important it uses geometric average Because the market value and book value of d ebt are nearly the same, we directly subtract the debt value from Sum of PV (CCF) to get the final equity value. -7. 12% 11. 235% 248. 21 1412. 99 977. 0 435. 99 192. 3 91. 04 162. 12 118. 67 600. 52 1997 (35. 7) 34. 5 75. 4 83. 0 30. 5 0. 1 3. 0 9. 8 71. 0 271. 6 1998 17. 5 43. 4 11. 5 67. 4 21. 8 0. 2 -8. 3 68. 0 238. 1 (12. 33%) 1999 (12. 1) 44. 1 (44. 3) 47. 4 21. 5 (2. 2) -6. 3 64. 6 125. 3 (47. 38%) 2000 27. 6 44. 8 42. 0 46. 7 21. 2 (3. 2) -8. 1 61. 0 248. 2 98. 08% 2001 33. 6 45. 9 (2. 0) 45. 1 21. 5 (4. 4) -5. 8 56. 6 202. 1 (18. 57%) 1022. 67 Terminal CF 1022. 67 Table 3. Liquidation value Cash Accounts receivable Inventory Deferred income tax Income tax receivable Prepaid expenses and other current assets Current assets PP&E (net) Goodwill and other intangibles (net) Investment in subsidiaries Deferred charges and other assets Total assets Accounts payable Accrued expenses and other current liabilities Short-term borrowings Current portion of long-term debt Current liabil ities Long-term debt Other long-term liabilities Total liabilities Minority interest in Toy Biz Liquidation value Sep-96 35. 9 257. 2 99. 1 32. 5 18. 2 58. 2 501. 1 87. 7 595. 3. 2 72. 7 1260. 4 95. 8 170. 1 28. 7 625. 8 920. 4 0 56. 6 977. 0 102. 9 180. 5 Millions adjustment % 100 85 50 0 100 0 value 35. 9 218. 6 49. 6 0 18. 2 0 322. 3 Note s 1L 2L 3L 4L 50 50 0 0 43. 9 297. 9 0 0 664. 0 5L 6L 7L 7L 90 90 0 0 86. 2 153. 1 0 0 239. 3 8L 8L 9L 9L 0 0 0 0 239. 3 9L 10L 0 0 424. 7 11L 12L Note: all adjustments are based on our groupÃ¢â¬â¢s estimations, prepared from the 1996 standpoint. ? The second entry accounts receivable is adjusted downward to 85%, based on the Ã¢â¬Å"rule of thumbÃ¢â¬ of liquidation situations, note (2L), (5L), and (8L) are done likewise.To make it more precise, expert appraisers are needed for specific consultation. ? Notes (3L), (4L), (7L), (9L), (10L) and (11L) identify the items written down to zero if liquidized. ? Note (6L) were written down to 50% bec ause of the perceived value of MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s character portfolio (Spiderman and X-man did enable them steal the thunder), while we still need someone expertise for more accurate estimation. ? Lastly, subtracting liabilities from assets in Table 3. 2 gives us the liquidation valuation of $424. 7 million
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
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